For 35 years I have been an editor and proofreader. Yes, you read that right. Thirty-five years! I’ve edited everything from legal and medical reports to liner notes for CDs; press releases to websites; and Ph.D. theses to novels. And yes, I know that both PhD and Ph.D. are correct versions of the abbreviation for the Latin term philosophiae doctor. I read every single day. Being a voracious reader has made me a better editor so the first piece of advice I have for anyone who wants to write a book is, read a book.
Read a best-selling book in the genre in which you want to write and pay attention to the book’s structure, style, diction, tone and narrative voice, as well as the author’s use of punctuation. Take notes. Look up “How to Write a Nonfiction Book Outline” or “writing an outline for a fiction book” on Google, read about that, and then write an outline for your book. Once you have created an outline, write the first draft of each chapter, paying attention to your narrative tense. Be consistent with it. If you’re recounting something that happened in the past, use the past tense. Think about who your audience is and write to them. Don’t use a flowery word when a simple one will do. These things alone will make your editor very happy and save you considerable expense.
However, before you submit your manuscript for editing, here are 20 self-editing tips that will save you a lot of money:
1. Answer the questions, “What do I want to offer the reader?” and “How can I stand out from the crowd?”
2. Consider who your book is for and create a target demographic audience for it.
3. Write for that target demographic. For example, if you're writing for teens, know the authentic slang used by modern teenagers and make them believable. Interview them to get the right voice.
4. Research, research, research!
5. Decide whether you’re going to use American or British spelling and be consistent.
6. Create an outline for your book that is broken down into chapters with working titles and then write out what you want to convey in that chapter on recipe cards that you keep at your computer. Refer to them to make sure you’re staying on point.
7. Write your first draft without worrying about it being perfect.
8. When you write your second draft, flesh out all the points you mean to cover to support what that chapter is offering the reader.
9. Stay true to your voice and ask yourself how you can make the book as interesting, informative and insightful as possible to your readers.
10. When writing fiction, pay attention to character development, back story and character history, timeline, and a dramatic arc about two-thirds to three-quarters of the way through the book that then becomes resolved in the denouement.
11. Be mindful of changing up the lengths of your sentences. Don’t list everything in a long sentence. Break it up and highlight the most important parts of the paragraph with a shorter sentence.
12. Don’t use the same word over and over within one paragraph. Use a synonym finder to find different ways of describing the same thing and be careful about being too repetitive.
13. Start a new paragraph if a specific thought has been completed in the one that you’re writing.
14. Pay attention to your diction. Diction is word choice, or the style of speaking that a writer, speaker, or character uses. The diction that you use when you speak or write should be matched to your purpose or audience.
15. Understand what syntax is. The syntax is the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language. In this case, it would be the English language. Pay attention to word order.
16. Be concise. Express what needs to be said without unnecessary words.
17. Make sure that you’ve covered your key points for each chapter.
18. Watch your punctuation. If you’re writing something in quotes and then adding a comma after it, the comma falls within the quotes. The same goes for a period if you’re ending a sentence while still within the quote. When you start a sentence and then add a quote within it, start the quote with a capital letter. Make sure that if you’re asking a question, you use a question mark. Sometimes it’s better to use a conjunction like and or but rather than a comma. Read the sentence back aloud and check its fluidity when in doubt.
19. Put your work through WORD’s Editor and Grammarly's proofreading service before you submit it to your editor.
20. Above all, enjoy the topic you’re writing about and this process!
Don’t skip this self-editing process unless you want to go broke before you sell a single book. I promise it will be worth your time.
Allegory - noun
1. A poem, play, picture, etc., in which the apparent meaning of the characters and events is used to symbolize a deeper moral or spiritual meaning.
2. The technique or genre that this represents.
3. Use of such symbolism to illustrate truth or a moral
4. Anything used as a symbol or emblem.
The placing of one concept or object next to another, often for purposes of comparison.
Juxtapose - verb (to compare alongside of)
Metaphor - noun
A figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object or idea is used in place of another to suggest a likeness or analogy between them (as in drowning in money).
"The more metaphorical a poem is, all other things being equal, the more passionate it appears to be." - Robin Skelton
The meaning of a string in some language, as opposed to syntax which describes how symbols may be combined independent of their meaning.
The semantics of a programming language is a function from programs to answers.
Simile - noun
A figure of speech comparing two unlike things that is often introduced by like or as (as in cheeks like roses).
The structure of strings in some language. A language syntax is described by grammar.
Verisimilitude - noun
1. The appearance of truth; the quality of seeming to be true.
2. Something that has the appearance of being true or real.
"In an attempt to create verisimilitude, in addition to the usual vulgarities, the dialogue is full of street slang."